Monday, February 24, 2020
A critical assessment of marketing analysis tools - Essay Example The intention is to evaluate, develop as well as disseminate the competitive advantages for an organization. In the current study two competitive strategies have been critically evaluated. PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s five forces model The configuration of porterÃ¢â¬â¢s five forces differs from industry to industry. In commercial aircraft market, rivalry is strong among dominant producers Boeing and Airbus as bargaining power is strong, while threat of substitutes and threat of entry and supplier power is less. In sector of Movie Theatre, substitute entertainments forms are proliferated as power of distributors as well as dominant movie producers are important. The competitive force which is strongest determines industry profitability and becomes crucial for strategy formulation (Porter, 2004) Economy has become more dynamic as well as volatile, and strategies require moving beyond conventional ideas of positioning and competition while understanding profitability and industry competition (Port er, 1980; Hubbard and Beamish, 2011). In order to describe the five basic forces of competition, economist and professor, Micheal E. Porter created a model which can be considered by companies while developing and implementing business strategies (Porter 2008). The various forces constituting micro level external environment were supplier power, threat of new entry, customers or buyer power, substitute power as well as competitive rivalry (Grant, 2011). The overall configuration and strength of the above forces differ by sector, and these forces determine overall potential for profitability and attractiveness. With the decrease in the intensity, attractiveness and productivity of the industry becomes higher. The goal of business managers is to determine and evaluate the factors, drivers or sources which influence these forces so that they can be shaped to favour the strategy implementation process. New entrants introduce themselves in the market with new capacities. They are interes ted in gaining share in the market and pressurise the pricing strategy and tend to shake the established restructuring as well as industry competition. The influence of these threats depends on how strong is the industry barrier, strategic decisions influencing the industry and overall incumbent reaction (Bain, 2001). Other factors which influence these treats include product differences, economies, switching costs of buyer, brand identity, ease of distribution, capital requirements, government policy, expected retaliation as well as cost advantage. The height of entry barriers has been constantly proven as one of the most critical predicator to overall industry profitability (Frank, 2008). Suppliers have the bargaining power to control and limit profitability of the industry by increasing prices or reducing the services or product qualities. Thus, industry participants find it difficult to achieve profit from increased costs. Various factors influence the supplier power. these can be supplier input differentiation, concentration of supplier in the industry, selling volume of supplier products and its relative importance, information available about supplier products, profitability of the suppliers as well as presence of supplier substitutes. Other factors include forward integration of important suppliers, costs to suppliers relative to overall purchases as well as supplier incentives. Customer or buyers also exert some power in the market. They have the power of bringing down prices of products or services. They can look for better quality as well as intensify internal competition among brands. All of these can result in decrease in the supplier as well as industry profitability. factors which influence the power of buyers include importance of the volume of purchases,
Saturday, February 8, 2020
The Role of Integrity in Criminal Justice Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words
The Role of Integrity in Criminal Justice - Essay Example Most people will never be involved directly or indirectly with district attorneys, judges or probation officers. Police officers are therefore the Ã¢â¬Å"faceÃ¢â¬ of the criminal justice system for most people. Integrity in their actions is necessary so that the credibility of the criminal justice system in America can be maintained (Klockars, 2006). Corruption, cronyism and a lack of integrity plague police forces around the world. In some countries, the last person you want to interact with is a police officer because any interaction will include threats of imprisonment or the solicitation of bribes. Police officers are charged to do the right thing according to duty. Everyone working in a professional capacity within the criminal justice system needs to uphold their duty in an ethical manner, but police officers have a special responsibility to do this. The enforcement of laws needs to happen in a manner that is fair and unbiased. Any lapse in integrity makes this impossible. A breach in integrity creates an inherently unjust situation. Police officers are often forced to make difficult decisions. Acting with integrity is a sure guide when the time comes for making hard choices. A lack of integrity for a police officer can be manifest in many ways. One way is through a biased application or enforcement of the law. Holding different groups within the community more accountable for breaking laws than other groups is unethical and lacks integrity. These divisions can be made along the lines of race, gender, sexual orientation, income level and age. Police officers need to keep in mind that proper enforcement of the law can not be dictated by membership in a certain group. When laws are enforced this way, integrity is lacking. Another profound breach of integrity police officers may be involved in is through the taking of bribes or hush money. While this is the norm in some
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Human Resources Integration Essay Hugh McCauley, the Chief Operations Officer of Riordan Manufacturing, has placed a service request, SR-rm-022 to integrate all existing Human Resources tools into a single integrated application across all plant locations. The business would like to take advantage of a more sophisticated, state-of-the-art, information systems technology to replace their current Human Resources Information System or HRIS (Riordan Manufacturing, 2006.) In response to this request, this document will outline the following items. The information-gathering techniques and systems analysis tools proposed for this project. Critical factors to ensure the sucessful gathering of information required for the project. Description of the project scope and the areas of project feasibility, and key stakeholders of which requirements will be collected are also discussed. INFORMATION GATHERINT TECHNIQUES AND SYSTEMS ANALYSIS TOOLS To ensure project success, it is important to gather your key stakeholders together to discuss the system. Key Stakeholders for this project would be key management personnel, IT staff, and users of both the legacy system, and the new system. Your key stakeholders will also be the first level of intelligence gathering performed. Key management personnel such as Hugh McCauley, the COO, who can give the corporate view of the legacy and the new system. HR Director Yvonne McMillian and Payroll/Tax Clerk Anan Richlich can give an exact use case on the HRIS system, and will be the two primary sources of legacy information. Director Yvonne can determine training requirements with the help of the IT department. The IT department can provide information about the legacy system and the capabilities of the current infrastructure of the business. IT can also judge and approve new requirements, privacy structures, and future support needed to maintain theÃ system. Face-to-face interviews will allow information gathering from these key individuals. Questions, an outline of topics, and a primary agenda will be provided beforehand to maximize the use of available time in hectic schedules. We will also be occasionally meeting to discuss the direction the system is heading, timelines, priorities, and key players lists to ensure success of the project. There is another primary source of information which needs addressing, and this is the group of people who handle information we will be adding which did not exist in the legacy system. This group can submit examples of their files, which will determine another part of the scope of the system, and use cases of how that information is gathered. After this information has been collected, documented and studied, the system development process can begin. The system will be designed using the Joint Application Development (JAD) method. JAD is a prototyping method which gathers our key players listed above, along with other designated individuals to collectively refine business requirements while in conference with the design team of the software and the support team from IT. The JAD process also includes approaches for enhancing user participation, expediting the development, and improving the quality of specifications. It consists of a workshop where knowledge workers and IT specialists meet, sometimes for several days, to define and review the business requirements for the system.Ã¢â¬ (Joint Application Design Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, n.d.) Using this prototyping method ensures that each key factors such as project support and misdirection will not be an issue. This also ensures that the project gets the continued support it will need in the future to succeed. SCOPE AND FEASIBILITY During the Analysis phase of the Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC), several areas of project feasibility come into play. As discussed above, determining fully the system requirements ensures that you are filling the need of the system. A preliminary study is then conducted to confirm and evaluate the need. A proposal of how the need may be satisfied is then made. (Scope of Feasibility Analysis | Bicara Property, n.d.) The necessity of the system, as well as the improvements and requirements of the new system, will all be handled within the JAD process, allowing final project scope and requirements development. These developments can be realizedÃ financially to allow final budgetary requirements determination. All of these determinations hinge upon the proper system scope being defined. During this process, the unique considerations are also shared. In this project, the request was to Create a detailed system design and a project implementation plan required to complete the proj ect. The project should be completed in approximately six months allowing new system utilization in the second quarter of next year. (Riordan Manufacturing, 2006.) This design process includes checks and balances, giving the project the fullest chance of success. During the entire process, oversight will be maintained by corporate leadership. Final approval before entering the next phase of the SLDC allowing equipment purchasing approval from the COO, Hugh McCauley. By following this process, we can ensure this project produces a system which fulfills the requirements, bringing a sophisticated, state-of-the-art, information systemÃ¢â¬ to Riordan ManufacturingÃ¢â¬â¢s Human Resources Department. (Riordan Manufacturing, 2006.) During the JAD process, two methods were determined to fit the requirements, building a system in-house using programmersÃ¢â¬â¢ already on staff or using off the shelf software from a major corporation. To fulfill user testing requirements, a trial version of the BambooHR software was tested by staff and management. The BambooHR software fulfills all the requirements with less downtime for the company, saving valuable resources and eliminating the need for more support staff to be hired. The design process for this system began by gathering relevant data for the current system and by building both requirements for the new system and use cases of the current processes in the Human Resources department. After gathering and sorting the new system requirements using the Joint Application Design process, it is now possible to continue to design both the application architecture and apply the tools of system analysis to describe the information systems. SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE The client/server architecture is one of the most prevalent system architectures used in corporations. With Riordans requirements to allow multiple sites access to data and to ensure that data remains secure, the data will be stored on the server, and access routed through a secondaryÃ application server. The application server hosts the applications which access the data, allowing a lower cost local machine, and can allow both intranet access and outside access using a VPN (Virtual Private Network) connection to create a secure encrypted link between the client and the server. This style of client/server architecture is referred to as a three-tiered architecture due to the three tiers involved in accessing the data. Although this method may seem bulky at first, this will allow many different benefits for data security and lower overall cost of the system as requirements are lower for the client computers. The determined requirements for multiple locations to share and modify data leaving with Riordan only required to supply the client systems with no additional support necessary for a data server or application server. Eliminating the current architecture on hand will save maintenance, upgrade and support costs, both in monetary and staff requirements. The chosen software, Bamboo Human Information Resource System (HRIS) follows the same requirements recommended in terms of hardware as those designed using system analysis. ARCHITECTURE DIAGRAM SECURITY CONTROLS Security is the ability to protect the information system from disruption and data loss, whether caused by an international act (e.g., a hacker or a terrorist attack) or a random event (e.g., disk failure, tornado.) according to SYSTEMS TEXTBOOK. In modern corporations, internal threats can become much more dangerous than external threats. To combat both types of threats implementation of the following security protocols will be included in the system: DATA Data must be kept secure and confidential, protected from both internal and external threats at all times. Data encryption and passwords will be used in addition to other security features to protect employees. Data stored externally to the server, such as the outsourced benefits data will be reviewed for security procedures and evaluated annually. Currently the data is decentralized, being stored in different offices and by various methods, creating a security problem that the new system can correct. The first stepÃ to addressing this will be to ensure secure storage of all data. Consolidating data allows secure controls on the access each person has to the secured data by both the application used to access the server, and the access controls given them when they log in. This will also allow multiple applications to access the same data, while leaving greater flexibility to find the best software to fit multiple needs. Each user can add, remove, and manipulate only the data they are given access to, no matter the platform the data is being accessed form. PROCESSES Some legacy processes consolidation will occur as the data is consolidated, and certain processes would benefit from using third party software thereby gaining security certificates and minimizing the amount of knowledge and training required for our Information Technologies department. Many of the software suppliers will assist with training, modification and installation making the transition from the legacy system easier on staff. INTERFACES System interfaces describe how the system shares information with outside sources such as outsourced data, user requests, and internal data sharing. As Intrusion Detection and Identity Management systems will protect the internal data interfaces, as discussed above, the user interface design process needs to be addressed. As many of the users currently only have forms built for their information and no system to store them in, Riordan Manufacturing can evaluate different third party solutions for a web-based system. Using a web-based system, such as Bamboo HRIS allows applications to be placed on a remote server, lowering the cost of the clients used and saving valuable money and resources. Employees accessing the application server via the intranet will use username/password combinations to decrypt data on their local machine, while access from external sources, including employees at a remote site will use a private key encryption system to decrypt their data. This process minimizes the amount of data stored on the individual clients in case of theft or destruction of client resources. NETWORK The network consists of the backbone, data server, application server, firewall, and clients. There are four processes that will be used to protectÃ the network from unauthorized access: Implementation of Intrusion Detection System Ã¢â¬â This system conducts real-time monitoring of the network, database, traffic, and user access and activity to find possible intrusion or security risks. Log Management Program Ã¢â¬â Almost all software produces logs which store information on user access, file management, and data modification to name a few examples. Consolidating these logs into easier to read and understand can help identify potential security risks. Identity Management Systems Ã¢â¬â Control access to resources and data based on the users identification within the system, i.e. the users login credentials. Ã Training for Security Measures Ã¢â¬â The best security system will not function to its highest potential unless staff are trained in the use of the system. This training includes proper in-processing and out-processing procedures to protect from unauthorized access. Although the Systems Development Life Cycle is a continuous cycle, the final step for this Human Resources Information System project is the Implementation and Operations phase. This is the most expensive and time-consuming phase due to the amount of personnel, resources, and time involved. According to Valacich, George, and Hoffer (2012), there are seven major activities, coding, testing, installation, documentation, training, support, and maintenance. This document will explore the first six activities, giving a brief description and the plan for implementation at Riordan Manufacturing of the Bamboo Human Resources Information System. It is important to ensure that each of these activities are adequately defined, as many of them are conducted multiple times during the life of the system, and some are carried out on a daily basis. Building proper procedures for staff and support personnel to follow ensures that all upgrade or modification testing is accomplished to the same standards as the original system. CODING Coding is the process by which designs are transferred into the physical form that is computer software. As the selected system requires no coding, thisÃ aspect will not be planned for TESTING Testing is an involved process which begins with the first section of code and continues throughout the life of the system. There are several different methods of testing in use today, some in which the code is run to verify operation and output, and some in which a code error review is conducted without operation. The Inspection method involves a physical inspection of the code, checking for syntax, grammar, or other fundamental errors before running the code while ignoring the purpose of the code. The inspection method usually removes the majority of errors found in the program. A Walkthrough allows testing of the code for functionality and to determine if the code fulfills the design requirements identified by the design team. Desk Checking, another form of checking and verifying code involves running the code with paper and pen to determine the logical validity of the code without running any lines of code. The previous methods of testing are focused on catching issues when writing code and may not apply to the code purchased off the shelf, or in modular form to work within an existing system. With the cost of development for code, especially in smaller companies this may not be a viable option, however even if purchasing prepackaged code, there are tests which should be run to ensure no problems will be found during installation. After the code has been validated by manual means, or for purchased code, it can be processed by a program, such as a compiler, to verify that there are no significant errors by Syntax Checking. Syntax Checking can also be run automatically each time the program saves a file to identify issues which arise causing the system to need maintenance. Code is generally written in modular form in todays environments, and there are methods of testing which lend themselves well to this. Unit testing is designed to test each individual module or unit to verify operation before the modules are combined together into a system. Testing individual modules may seem to be difficult as many modules share data and information, the way to fix any call errors is by using Stub Testing. During Stub testing, lines of instructions are inserted in the code to emulate a response from an outside source allowing the program to complete without errors. After testing the modules, they are combined and tested again during Integration testing, using a top-down approach to verifying communications and data sharing logic is sound. The final methodÃ to discuss is System Testing, the act of testing the finalized system, using the same top-down approach from the Integration phase. The software chosen for Riordan Manufacturing to satisfy the needs listed is off-the-shelf giving limited testing requirements. Alpha Testing was accomplished during the final steps of the JAD, or Joint Application Design, process and beta testing will commence using key stakeholders in the project once final project approval has been given. INSTALLATION The installation process involves transitioning from the legacy system to the new system and can occur in several different approaches, direct, parallel, single location, and phased. Ã¢â¬Å"Each installation strategy involves converting not only software but also data and (potentially) hardware, documentation, work methods, job descriptions, offices and other facilities, training materials, business forms, and other aspects of the systems (Dennis, Wixom, Roth, 2012, ). Each of these different installation methods has their positive and negative aspects, and can be combined to fit the needs of the business requirements. The Direct Approach is a cold turkey shut down of the legacy system with no transition time, which can be dangerous if there are issues with the new system, or if support or training are lacking, however, this can drive the new system as there is no choice but success. In the Parallel installation method, the legacy system is left running allowing a safety net; however, this requires support for both systems causing increased cost to the business. A Single Location approach can allow for adjustments before all sites are brought online, however while the other locations continue to use the legacy system, data must be bridged between the two systems and the same additional costs of the Parallel system are incurred. Finally the Phased approach gradually transitions between the two systems, making transitions easier for the staff, yet limits the newer system to the constraints of the older system as they must share data. For Riordans new HRIS, the direct approach will be combined with the phased approach. Currently only the corporate site is using the legacy system, and phasing the other locations onto the system will allow training in phases by location. DOCUMENTATION Documentation of a system comes in several different forms each of utmostÃ importance. To ensure that the system can be adequately supported and repaired, System documentation is required. To ensure that users properly understand the system, User documentation such as a users guide, release description, system administrators guide, reference documentation and user acceptance are required. Systems documentation, users guide and reference documentation for this system is provided by Bamboo HR after purchase of the system is completed, and acceptance sign-off will be completed as the final step of the installation. TRAINING As systems can only function to the level at which users can operate the system, user training is tantamount to success of an installation. User training can occur in many different forms, classroom led training, literary resources, and online training, all of which are educational tools to heighten productivity and ensure system success. Support staff will also be trained to understand not only how the user accomplishes tasks within the system, but also the how the system performs these tasks if repair or maintenance is to be conducted. Training on the HRIS will be carried out by BambooHR using several different methods for different topics. As the system will be maintained by an outside company, the focus for Riordan will be user training. All staff will be trained using online methods with documentation support for using the new system as all pertinent employee information will be handled through the online system to include benefits, vacation time, and training. Specialist training will be available for the following procedures; benefit tracking, recruitment, employee and management training, employee tracking, login management, payroll activities, report management, change requests and performance reviews by BambooHR. In addition, IT support staff will receive refresher training in application program interface to allow for interactivity and continued development of the system as business needs change. SUPPORT Support of a system is conducted not only on the system itself, in terms of upgrades for the hardware and software, and backups of the data, but also support for the users. With any system, issues occur during use, and an avenue for users to report these quickly and accurately, and receive assistance for problems is required. Tracking these reported problems canÃ help system analysts and support staff determine if there is a fix for the software or hardware, or if more user training can solve the issues. CONCLUSION Purchasing the Bamboo HRIS program has both tangible and intangible benefits for Riordan Manufacturing. The financial aspect, $16,512 a year ($8 per employee for 172 regular employees) dwarfs the price of purchasing and installing the required hardware to run an on-site system, while removing the current outsourcing which exists for benefits management. Provided training, customer support, security support, data migration, business report design and security upgrades add to the overall corporate value and dispensing of the legacy system releases it support personnel while lowering utility and maintenance bills. Determinations of the proper level of support staffing needed to continue business operations after the legacy system retirement will be conducted to eliminate nonessential personnel. REFERENCES Cutler, T. P. (2015). Internal vs. external threats Digital locksmiths. Retrieved from http://digitallocksmithsinc.com/2013/03/27/internal-vs-external-threats/#.VQ5XR-HZBww Riordan Manufacturing (2006). Riordan Intranet. Retrieved March 15, 2015 from http://ecampus.phoenix.edu/secure/aapd/cist/libraries/IT Service Requests.htm University of Phoenix 2005-2009 Unified Security Management USM Platform. (2015). Retrieved from https://www.alienvault.com/products?utm_source=Googleutm_medium=CPCutm_term=%2Balienvaultutm_campaign=SITELINK-ALIENVAULT_USMgclid=COrosKLUv8QCFRSIfgodGr4AUg Joint application design Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joint_application_design Bicara, Bedes (2009). Bicara Property. Retrieved January 16, 2010 from http://bicaraproperty.wordpress.com/2009/08/19/scope-of-feasibility-analysis BambooHR: Human resources software for small and medium businesses. (2015). Retrieved from http://www.bamboohr.com/ Valacich, J. S., George, J. F., Hoffer, J. A. (2012). Essentials of Systems Analysis and Design (5th ed.). Retrieved from The University of Phoenix eBook Collection.
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
Present Provoking Past Ã¢â¬Å"Analyze a charactersÃ¢â¬â¢ response to the past as a source of meaning in a workÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å" . . . the past, no matter what it was like, never becomes a matter of indifference to the present.Ã¢â¬ In One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich, Alexander Solzhenitsyn portrays one normal day in the life of Shukhov (Ivan Denisovich), a Russian peasant unfairly confined in one of StalinÃ¢â¬â¢s forced labor camps for political prisoners. Throughout the novel, Solzhenitsyn depicts how Shukhov has adapted to his surroundings and has been able to survive with a dignity other prisoners have lost throughout their confinement. It is exactly the way Shukhov has been able to live and survive in prison, that reveals how he has responded to his past, even when all the author reveals to the reader is the charactersÃ¢â¬â¢ immediate present. Shukhov responded to his past by clinging to aspects of his Ã¢â¬Å"previous lifeÃ¢â¬ which allowed him to maintain his humanity, and thus survive, and by letting go of those which didnÃ¢â¬â¢t. Many critics argue that imprisonment robs individuals of their humanity for, in order to survive, they grow accustomed to their harsh life and loose basic human responses. Solzhenitsyn however, proves through Shukhov, that even within confinement, where prisoners are robbed of every kind of possession, freedom and humanity can still exist within. What aspects then, does Shukhov hold on to, and which ones does he let go of in order to survive? First of all, it is very important to clarify that survival in the novel is very relative. Surviving for some of the prisoners is merely enduring life, no matter the cost, such as for Fetiukov who stoops even to collecting other prisonersÃ¢â¬â¢ left over cigarette buds, even though he puts himself in danger of catching a syphilitic lip. For Shukhov however, surviving goes far beyond making it alive. Shukhov shares KuziominÃ¢â¬â¢s same belief that those who lick other men's leftovers, those who count on the doctors to pull them through, and those who squeal on their buddies donÃ¢â¬â¢t make it, for itÃ¢â¬â¢s at the expense of not just other peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s blood, but at the expense of loss of self-value, of self-worth. Thus, for Shukhov, surviving is going on living, while maintaining his freedom and humanity, even in an environment which has total control over him. As consequence, the most important thing that Shukhov holds on to is his intrinsic code of values and morals.
Monday, January 13, 2020
I began writing to show how business can quickly go out of business if the owners do not keep an eye on its public. Kodak failed to meet its customerÃ¢â¬â¢s needs, so the company could not keep up with demands. Have you ever gone shopping and found yourself searching for an item you have seen advertised in another store, only to be told that the item was out of stock or this store does not carry that product. This is what happens when supply does not keep up with demand. The company goes under, under the strain of their competitorÃ¢â¬â¢s reactiveness. Kodak needed to make changes sooner rather than later when their management made decisions that could help or hurt Kodak. Fuji constantly made changes and made the necessary changes to meet their customerÃ¢â¬â¢s needs. As a business owner being able to reach and understand each customer will help in sales so profits will rise. Many people continue to shop where products are cheap and convenient. Staying in business is knowing and meeting different people with different wants and needs and then helping them with finding an inexpensive means of finding them. That is the nature of business and a way to keep a customer satisfied. Building a relationship with customers is the most important aspect in business. If the business does not speak directly to its customerÃ¢â¬â¢s they will soon have a loss in customers. Management plays an important part in the structuring of a business if the manager is not being active in the search for new ideas. Therefore technics to improve the company that company will be lost. NewÃ products must be advertised and sold in order to grow successfully. Ideas must be turned into products and problems concerning issues in a product must be changed into improvements for the customer. All these things must be completed to make sure there is a constant growth in business, so its sale s could be turned into capital to expand the business. Kodak vs. Fujifilm Growing up in a big family where parents loved taking pictures and capturing that special moment. Kodak and Fujifilm played an enormous role in many households around the world. When it comes to history and competition, management strategies play a key role in the way two competitive companies embrace innovation. Kodak and Fujifilm companies focus on both photography and imaging as their core businesses. Kodak had an upper hand by starting earlier than Fujifilm, 1888 compared to 1934 (Kodak and Fujifilm, 2012), Fujifilm adapted more to the market changes and currently still is a leading force in the film industry. Kodak was in bankruptcy protection since January 2012 under Chapter 11 with hopes to try to reconfigure its business strategies. Slow and comp lacey adaption dominated in Kodak CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s while Fujifilm embraced diversified spirit in all aspects of the market relevance. Each companyÃ¢â¬â¢s ethics and social approach clearly reflects their profitability to give back to the community. Production standards were maintained that satisfied all consumers. Possible changes of the decision-making process that would embrace flexibility and be the best way to ensure diversity and innovation in any organization. Describe the History and Core Business of Each Company Kodak Kodak was formally known as Eastman Kodak Company. The founder George Eastman (1888), patent and developed a technology that would change the way we see things in still life. Eastman launched the ease to photography, the first simple click camera, photography equipment, film, paper, and color chemicals. Kodak was making a profit by the 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s. (Ã¢â¬Å"Building the FoundationÃ¢â¬ , n.d.). Although Kodak developed the basic technology for the digital cameras in 1975, the idea was dropped due to the fear that it would threaten the film business (Williams, 2013). Kodak dropped the ball on whatÃ would have been the biggest technology development in the film industry because they could not see the future without traditional film. Digital cameras are much faster and more efficient than the traditional film, so Kodak sales dropped considerably. Competition from other companies would eventually lead to KodakÃ¢â¬â¢s loss of market shares in United States and worldwide. January of 2012, the company filed Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection, and a year later, the court approved financing. Kodak, they sold patents to a group of companies: Apple, Microsoft, Google, and others. Fujifilm The Japanese company was founded in 1934 (Fujifilm, n. d.). They focused on photography and imaging. The company soon ruled the Japanese market, which was ranked second after the United States in film usage (Fujifilm, n. d.). Eventually, the company entered the global and American market with a bold move, using aggressive marketing and low prices (Fujifilm, n. d.). The turning point of the FujifilmÃ¢â¬â¢s success in this venture was marked by the 1984 Los Angeles Olympics (Fujifilm, n. d.), when they became the official film of the event. This placed Fujifilm on the market permanently, and the company started taking over KodakÃ¢â¬â¢s market share by offering equal quality products for a cheaper price (Fujifilm, n. d.). As Fujifilm prepared for the fast changing needs in the market, it widened its business scope to digital cameras, printers, photocopiers, and optical devices (Fujifilm, n. d.). It also tapped into the health sector, producing medical equipment that includes X-ray i maging and chemicals (Fujifilm, n. d.). Compare and Contrast the Approach to Management That Each Company has Pursued in Order to Embrace Innovation. KodakÃ¢â¬â¢s failure to embrace innovation in a timely fashion could be blamed on its managementÃ¢â¬â¢s approach. They seemed to Ã¢â¬Å"ruleÃ¢â¬ from behind the desk from their Rochester headquarters, which made them ignorant about the coming changes in technology and customersÃ¢â¬â¢ needs, and how it would affect them. Even when they were advised that the move to digital technology was necessary, management still refused to take action. In fact, avoiding revolutionizing the technology they originally created is the main reason behind KodakÃ¢â¬â¢s current troubles and loss of share in the market (Williams, 2013). Although they created the first ever digital camera back in 1975, top-level management rejected the idea in fear of losing its core businessÃ in film. Looking back, this seems to be the turning point in the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s fortune (Mui, 2012). The predicted change to digital technology 20 years later was seen as the far future, and as the company enjoyed success, leadership did not see a reason for change. In recent years, however, Kodak tried to change its management strategy in embracing innovation. They shifted to delocalize research and collect data, in order to gather more information about consumer preferences. They also diversified top-level management to ensure best skill input in each field, and implemented a more democratic management style that listens to staff suggestions and ideas (Williams, 2013). Fuji, on the other hand, took a different approach from the beginning; while they were successful in the film business, they prepared for the switch to digital technology and developed new business lines. Initially, they started off as a photography and imaging company, then diversified into different other products such as digital cameras, cosmetology, and medical equipment. This enabled Fujifilm to achieve profits depending on the preferences of their various customer bases. After its successful dominance in the Japanese market, Fujifilm realized the potential in venturing into the global market. The 1984 Olympics in Los Angeles marked the breakthrough point in this venture, when Fujifilm became the official film of the event. This provided the company the opportunity to get a growing portion of KodakÃ¢â¬â¢s market share (Schum, 2012). A joint venture with the UK based Xerox (Fuji Xerox) helped establish further global production and sales. Their consolidated funds equipped both companies with capability for innovation, research & development, and investments. Determine what other management differences have impacted the relative success of Kodak and Fujifilm. Provide specific examples to support your response. Opposing to change by management was a major cause for the failure of Kodak. Even though they dropped the ball on the digital technology, Kodak got the credit for the digital invention. They felt their initial plans and strategy worked so well that change was not needed. The management team believed that its core strength was in the brand and marketing that they coul d just partner up with or buy into a new industry such as drug or chemicals. But without in-house guidance, Kodak lacked the ability to integrate the companies it had purchased and to negotiate profitable partnerships (Schum, 2012). Unlike Kodak, Fujifilm implemented its goals and ideas, and the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s quickÃ reaction to change was an advantage over Kodak. The success of Fujifilm can be mainly associated with ManagementÃ¢â¬â¢s flexibility to be innovative and venture into new technology, which has put the company at the top of the photographic industry since its founding in 1934 (K.N.C., 2012). When Fuji realized that digital photography would be the way of the future, the company went through some changes to get away from the same type of marketing that Kodak was stuck on. Fuji still went through a number of years of losing profit because of making film manufacturing and sales its main business, but eventually Top Management had to implement new strategies. Evaluate each CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s approach to Ethics and Social Responsibilities and the impact those approaches have had on each companyÃ¢â¬â¢s profitability. In 2004, Kodak was ranked 58th out of the top 100 companies surveyed for the listing of, Ã¢â¬Å"Best Corporate CitizensÃ¢â¬ . This acknowledgement was given by Business Ethics Magazine, and according to the article, Kodak had been in the running for 5 years (Business ethics names, 2004). Some of the areas that Kodak was recognized for were for the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s anti-discrimination policies, and its fair treatment of women and minorities (Business ethics names, 2004). From a social responsibility standpoint, Kodak contributes to, and supports a number of community organizations such as, the United Way, museums, cultural facilities, and performing arts organizations (Community affairs, 2013). The only aspect of poor social responsibility that I can apply to Kodak would be from the years of poor management decisions and a waste of money on a division of the company. Kodak did not prepare for the future, and ended up having to file bankruptcy, which stained the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s image. Hopefully, Kodak management has learned from the mistakes of the past and be a respected brand. Kodak is committed to environmental, ethical, and social responsible operations that include maintaining safe work environment and providing quality products. KodakÃ¢â¬â¢s single-use recycling programs help to avoid waste while saving resources and reducing cost of reusing the recycled material. All in effort to promote KodakÃ¢â¬â¢s images as a trustworthy and thorough company. Fujifilm is obligated to ethics and social responsibility as well. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s mini-lab network provided them with benefits of international economic scales for both manufacturing and marketing operations (Tsurumi & Tsurum.,Ã 1999). For example, FujifilmÃ¢â¬â¢s cost of goods sold as a percentage of sales continued to decline from 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s to 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s, although it had to a bsorb repeated cost of imported silver materials. Fujifilm spent ten times more for advertisement than Kodak did in Japan (Japan Market Research, 1995). This ensures that these measures and values are integrated in all company procedures. They also implemented a transparency policy to keep the government and customers aware of its business activities. Discuss the extent to Which Management of both Companies adapted to changing Market conditions. From what I have researched and wrote about, Kodak stood firm in their traditions and was confident in their brand and marketing strategies. Kodak management had great inability to adapt to the changing marketing conditions when the signs were there for the future. That inability led them straight to bankruptcy (Schumpeter, 2012). Currently, the company is trying to reconstruct its strategies with a main focus on commercial printing. Fujifilm, on the other hand realized that major changes were necessary the coming of the new photographic film. Management made the appropriate moves to prepare for the future marketing conditions. They ability paid off. Fujifilm management team displayed the true value of innovation, strategy, and execution compared to Kodak management team. There diverse in-house expertise insured a smooth transformation (Schumpeter, 2012). Recommend three (3) ways any company should build in flexibility to back up its decision-making process in order to adapt to changing market conditions. An open mind: Management should have upward communication in its companies marketing strategy and decision making process. The lower-level management team gives the upper-level management team positive or negative feedback on the operation issues, problems, and performance of a company in order for all operations to run correctly and smoothly. Broad minded employees are open to new ideals and will be a great asset to the growth of any company or business. Global Expansion to Long Term-Planning: Designing their products according to the global market changes. Making comments to increase the products and services by constantly assessing and improving the processes used to create those products. By doing so, the company could expand in marketing faster, reliable, and satisfactory products in services to make customers return. Teamwork: Managers and non-managers collaborating with business owners, suppliers, employees, and customers working together to make improvements and solve problems in a company. Combining different skills and allowing employees to work together as a team to get a Clients order completed. References Bloomberg, (1998). Kodak-Fuji in U.S expected to heat up, New York. www.articleslatimes.com/1998/feb/16/busines/fuji.bloombergnews Fujifilm. (n.d). Fujifilm Global. Retrieved from http://www.fujifilm.com/ Kodak. (n.d). Building the Foundation. Kodak. Retrieved from http://www.kodak.com/ek/US/en/Our_Company/History_of_Kodak/Building_the_Found ation.htm Mui, C. (18 January, 2012). How Kodak Failed. Forbes. Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/sites/chunkamui/2012/01/18/how-kodak-failed Schumpeter,(2012). How Fuji film survived, www.economist.com/blogs/Schumpeter/2012/how- Fujifilm survived William, C (2012). Management: MGMT5. (5th ed.). Mason, OH) South-Western Cengage Learning Ziemba,S.(1996) articles about Fuji- chigogotribune.www.articles.chicogotribune.com/keyword/Fuji
Sunday, January 5, 2020
Business Law Business Law: UnitÃ¯ ¿ ½1 Review: 1.A law that restricts a fundamental right violates substantive due process unless it promotes a compelling or overriding state interest. TRUE 2. Owen claims that a Pennsylvania state statue infringes on his substantive due process rights. This claim focuses on: the content of the statute 3. A Rhode Island state statute imposes a prison term, without a trail, on all street vendors who operate in certain areas. A Court would likely hold this statute to be : unconstitutional under the due process clause 4. Leo, a resident of Missouri, owns a warehouse in Nebraska. A dispute arises over the ownership of the warehouse with Opal, a resident of Kansas. Opan files a suit aagainst Leo in Nebraska.Ã¯ ¿ ½Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦In this situation: the contract is suspended. 8. On April 1, KO Contractors, Inc. Contracts to build a store for Lo-Cost Jewelry a specific location in Metro City.Ã¯ ¿ ½ On May 1, Metro changes its zoning laws to prohibit the construction of a commercial building at the location. Lo-Cost files a suit aagainst KO. In this situation: the contract is discharged. 9.Carol pays Dick $10,000 for Dick to design an advertising campaign for Carol s health club. The next day, Dick tells carol that he has accepted a job in New York an cannot design the campaign.Ã¯ ¿ ½Carol files a suit against dick. Carol can recover: $10,000. 10. Dan hires Eve to perform at Dan s Club, but Eve later breaches the agreement to accept a higher-paying job at First Star Arena. Dan files a suit gainst Eve. The court will most likley: award damages to Dan. Ã¯ ¿ ½ Unit 4 Review: Ã¯ ¿ ½1. Under the UCC, a sale occurs when title passes from a seller to a buyer for a price. TRUE 2. Patents and copyrights are property that doesÃ¯ ¿ ½not come under Article 2. TRUE 3. NuTech Company agrees to sell computer equipment to Office Stores, inc (OSI) for OSI to make to its customers. Their construct will be unenforceable if it does not include: the quantity of the goods. 4. United Farms offers to sell Value Bakeries, Inc., fifty bushels of wheat.Ã¯ ¿ ½ values representative Wendy responds, We agree to buy fifty bushels only if the wheat is Grade A quality. Wendy s statement is: a counteroffer. 5. Kelly offers to buy 1,000Show MoreRelatedBusiness Law Questions and Answers10157 Words Ã |Ã 41 PagesANSWERS TO AICPA QUESTIONS CHAPTER 10 INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS AND THE INTERNET 1. (a) Computer software is covered under the general copyright laws and is therefore usually copyrightable as an expression of ideas. Answer (b) is incorrect because copyrights in general do not need a copyright notice for works published after March 1, 1989. 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This means that if your business doesnt pay a supplier, defaults on a debt, orRead MoreTutorial of Enterpreneur1126 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagestend to overestimate or underestimate their knowledge of the laws that pertain to starting a new firm? What does answer to this question suggest that entrepreneurs do before they start a firm? In general, entrepreneurs tend to overestimate their knowledge of the laws that pertain to starting a new firm. Before entrepreneurs start a firm, they should seek for lawyer to get some legal advice, get sources and information about the business, refer to book, or search the information thru the internetRead MoreLaw Firm Of Firm Law1567 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesLaw firm of Firm Law LLP Sole proprietorship, partnerships, and corporations are just a few different organization entities that people use when starting a new business. One can change from one business type into another using proper paperwork and by abiding state rules and regulations. 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Saturday, December 28, 2019
To those travelling to California to start a new life, California was seen as a land of opportunity for all, however that was not the case. The reality was that it was the land of opportunity for whites. Yes, racial minorities had more rights in California than in other parts of the United States, but these minorities still suffered from extreme discrimination. In the novel, Devil in a Blue Dress, by Walter Mosley, the treatment and lifestyle of racial minorities is depicted; however more importantly the novel demonstrates the broader trends of CaliforniaÃ¢â¬â¢s history in regards to racial minorities. This paper will describe and analyze these broader trends of the history of race relations in California to conceptualize the treatment of racial minorities in California. People of all races travelled to California to create a new life. For the Southern Negro, Ã¢â¬Å"California was like heaven,Ã¢â¬ (Mosley, 72) but as these minorities assimilated into the culture and society of C alifornia the concept of a heaven faded, and they experienced similar treatment to that of the south. Minorities in California were not treated equally to their white counterparts. They soon found of that Ã¢â¬Å"theirÃ¢â¬ people had Ã¢â¬Å"to learn to give a little extra if [they wanted to] advanceÃ¢â¬ (Mosley, 73). Yet, advancing socially or in employment circumstances was particularly difficult in California. In employment, racial minorities had bottom of the pedestal jobs, with their bosses being white superiors, who treatedShow MoreRelatedStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words Ã |Ã 1573 PagesGroup Behavior Ã¢â¬ ¢ Entirely new Opening Vignette (To the Clickers Go the Spoils) Ã¢â¬ ¢ New feature: glOBalization! Ã¢â¬ ¢ New Myth or Science? (Ã¢â¬Å"Asians Have Less Ingroup Bias Than AmericansÃ¢â¬ ) Ã¢â¬ ¢ New material on dysfunctional behavior in teams Ã¢â¬ ¢ Discussion of minority influe nce on group decision making Ã¢â¬ ¢ Introduces material on team mental models Ã¢â¬ ¢ Updated information on group decision errors and groupthink Ã¢â¬ ¢ New information on international variations in group behavior Ã¢â¬ ¢ New PointÃ¢â¬âCounterpoint (Affinity Groups